After crossing a country where the king's taxmen took him off his entire belonging but a scarf, a second country…
After crossing a country where the king’s taxmen took him off his entire belonging but a scarf, a second country that was the element of perennial frost and a third where neither Saturday nor Sunday was a rest day – a Hasid named Hananiah reached the Ukrainian the city of Buczacz there, when he heard, a group of Hasidim had prepared to travel to the land of Israel.
The rumor turned out to be true and had welcomed the fellow traveler. The group soon started traveling from Galicia to Moldova over Dniester until it reached Galati where they boarded a boat and sailed down the Danube until they climbed a larger ship with which they would go to Istanbul, where they would seek an even bigger ship as they sailed to Jaffa, where they would finally lay on foot and then kiss their ancestors’ patch on the ground.
However, the boat had barely entered the ocean when the group ̵
1; who had gathered to pray – noticed that the ten men they originally included became nine. Hananiah was missing.
Everyone assumed that he had stranded in land and regretted their failure to properly look after each other until the moon and stars disappeared and the dawn rose beyond the deck and revealed a man’s image into the ocean. 19659003] No fish in the sea threatened to swallow and no one dared to drowke the broad bearded man who contained a book and sat quietly on a scarf, confusing the passengers shouted from 70 nations and now the man looked at the scarf “until their eyelashes was burned by the sun. “
Finally, by storming a storm, landing in Jaffa and going to Jerusalem, Hasidim had the heart of thanking God for hardening them from sea to land when “their eyes peered and they saw Hananiah stood before them his face shone with joy as the glow of the ocean wave under the moon. “
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And then he greeted them and was delighted with them and after asking him, “Who brought you here?” Hanaja replied, “I spread my scarf on the sea and sat on it until I came to the land of Israel” 19659003] Penning this saga in 1933, based on a legend spoken in the Galician city from which he himself traveled to Jerusalem, author SY Agnon could not imagine when he wrote “In the Sea of Seas” that 15 years later his spirit of longing, imagination and decision-making would animate the Jewish state’s whisking of thousands of exile agonies to the motherland beaches.
what happened in the wake of bold voyages launched 70 years ago this fall, all of which now add a single story to an increasingly tense history of modern immigration.
It began in Yemen, from where it later went north to Iraq, then westward, to Morocco, and finally back east, to Ethiopia, opposite the Yemenian beaches where it began.
Back in Yemen, who just learned about the UN partition resolution, a mob was gathered in Aden and stormed its 5000 Jews.
The pogromen began December 2, 1947, lasted for three days, after which 78 Jews were dead, more than 100 stores stood and plundered four synagogues in dust.
The leaders of the Jewish state embryos therefore sought ways to save the 50,000 Jews of Yemen. The subsequent relocation of society would prove logistically as well as socially.
But still struggling for its independence war, Israel decided to fly Yemen’s Jews.
Implement Alaska Airlines handy pilots and small fleets of C-46 and DC -4s, organized Israeli agents Jem’s Jews in a transit camp in Aden, from which they sent 80 flights in less than two years. In 1950, they had transported 48,875 Yemeni Jews to Israel.
“Have you ever flown before?” Then, Minister of Labor Golda Meir asked an old man when he came out of the airplane. He did not have, but in reply to Meir’s next question he said he was not afraid to fly. “How are you?” She questioned, and the man responded by quoting all of Isaiah 40, including the verse “Those who wait for the Lord will renew their strength. They will build up with wings like eagles.”
The logistic task seemed beyond the ability of a small and unpleasant state, but it was fully implemented and organized exodus a recurring theme in Israel’s first 43 years.
Iraq moved over 110,000 Jews on some 900 flights between 1951 and 1952, with many of the passengers originally smuggling into Iran.
The following decade moved the spectrum from Asia to Africa and from air to sea as 80,000 Jews were sent from Morocco to Israel in 1961-1964.
Finally and most dramatically, 14,325 Ethiopian Jews were aired within 36 hours of 1991 by 35 Israeli Jews.
Seventy years after these operations began, they underlined the titanic efforts to reconnect the previously incomparable Jewish nation.
The geographical success is of course, because the Jews of the Middle East stopped mostly in Israel. Diplomatically, there was also an invaluable coincidence from this effort because the Iraqi Jews’ airshift led Israeli agents to establish ties with the Iranian government and at one point, Iraqi Jews fly to Israel with Air Iran’s predecessor, Iranian Airways.
“That’s how we paved the way for Iran’s actual recognition of Israel in March 1950, and that’s how we created the beginning of Israel’s diplomatic mission in Iran,” recalled in his book “Operation Babylon” (1985) Shlomo Hillel, Baghdadas born Jude who supervised this operation at the age of 25 served as Israel’s ambassador to Nigeria, police minister and speaker of Knesset.
Socially, however, the emigration activity was subsequently scary, so many Middle East Jews – unlike Hillel, born to a family of Western teim exporters – challenged by the Western culture of Israel, how the current Europe challenges its Muslim immigrants.
With mild resources, thousands of new immigrants were economically disadvantageous. In addition, the veterans had mostly European roots, and as such were products of the intelligence movement and the industrial revolution. Air flights arriving on the other hand were most traditional and poor, and often less formally educated.
Some therefore doubted the young state’s ability to tie together its new and veteran populations. They have proven incorrect.
During the decades social gaps between Israel’s and Middle East Jews were an important national challenge, which in a memorable case – 1959 – also resulted in several days of state riots. Later, Ethiopian Israelis demonstrated in Tel Aviv in protest against what they consider is their discrimination against the police.
Yet, the divided religious background of Israeli Jews gave a sufficient national glue to build a new society that gathered faster than the founder of Israel predicted.
The Yemeni man, who Golda Meir met on the asphalt, was accepted by all as a Jew. His biblical knowledge and Jewish observations made it clear. The same went for other Middle Eastern communities.
Iraqi Jews came down from the learned who wrote the Babylonian speech mud. Syrian Jews preserved for centuries the world’s oldest Torah roll. Egyptian Jews gave Maimonides, the greatest Jewish philosopher. Tunisian Jews adorned its antique, reflected by the community of Djerba, a Mediterranean island whose Jews were all Kohanim, which means descendants of bishop Jerusalem priests.
Like Yemen’s Jews, who believed that their predecessors arrived in Arabia after the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem in 586 BC, and as Ethiopian Jews, who believe they arrived in Africa in the wake of King Solomon’s alliance with the Queen of Sheba, Djerba’s Jews believed that their ancestors arrived in Africa centuries before Jewish communities emerged in Europe.
Still, Mideastern Jewry shrank from 50% of world Jews in the 1700s to 10% of the 19th century, due to the growing gap in the development of these years between Europe and the Ottoman Empire. Then European Jews came to see their Middle East brothers as exotic Jews.
Today, with more than one in three Israelis, at least in part, the Mideastern, this feeling of exoticism is an anachronism. The social climb of air and sealed Jews has been quite dramatic.
As recently noted in another context (“Unsung heroism”, May 14, 2018), since 1982, 5 out of 10 IDF executives have recruited Middle Eastern immigration, as well as 4 of 9 defense officials, 3 out of 10 foreign ministers, 5 of 15 finance ministers and 2 of Israel’s last three chiefs, including commander Roni Alsheikh, whose father Avraham was among the faithful flew from Yemen in Operation Magic Carpet. Among mayors and legislators, the proportion of citizens Israelis is even higher.
In the private sector, Israel’s list of self-made billionaires is obsessed with names like Yitzhak Teshuva, who came from Libya as a child with his ten-family, began to work as a construction worker and became a developer worth about $ 3 billion; or Tzadik Bino, who arrived from Iraq in 1950 at the age of six, began as a bank driver and became President of First International Bank, which he now owns. or Shlomo Eliyahu, who also arrived in 1950 as a child from Iraq and started as a messenger boy in Migdal Insurance before becoming an independent insurer and eventually bought Migdal for more than 4.2 billion shekels.
Although these are extreme cases, reflect intense social mobility in a society that admires performance more than relatives. It can explain why the number of Israelis of the common European mideast’s anorem is steadily rising and among the generation of thirty somethings is already 25 percent.
This trend also applies to Israel’s latest non-European immigration, and the last to control its multiple airlifts.
More than a tenth of Ethiopian Israelis are already married to white Israelis. There is not even half of “intermarriage” between the rest of Israel’s non-European and European Jews. However, it is more than twice as much as black and white marriage in the United States.
As they wait 70, Austrian Israeli airlifting forces and seamlessly contrast to what is happening today outside of Israel, where African and Arab immigrants oppress courageous Mediterranean waves and eye European beaches before they break into three groups: those who reach an unpleasant Europe, those who remain stranded in camps between land and sea, and those who drowke in the sea.
Israel’s airlifters and sailplanes now look like a single effort from a developed country to actively lead immigrants from the Third World to their beaches.
Fortunately, 70-year-old retrospectives of aviation lifts and sailplanes indicate that while Israel missed a fraction of today’s Europe’s resources, it had all the absorption motivation that today’s Europe lacks.  Watch television on the horrific scenes of the current European-Mideast tragedy, the Israelis feel that they are familiar with this drama from all sides: immigrant’s pursuit to reach, the veteran’s reluctance to embrace and the sea’s preparedness to swallow.
“All heavenly heavens darken and the moon and stars are hiding,” wrote Agnon from the view of immigrants from the boat, “the world’s air is moist and its taste is like the taste of salt; the whole world is still standing, nothing can be heard but the sound of The sea dares to kiss each other. “
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