A Falcon 9 rocket lifts off Monday at 10:34 a.m. PST (1:34 p.m. EST; 1834 GMT) from Space Launch Complex…
A Falcon 9 rocket lifts off Monday at 10:34 a.m. PST (1:34 p.m. EST; 1834 GMT) from Space Launch Complex 4-East at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Credit: SpaceX
Setting new commercial launch and satellite industry records, a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket propelled by a first stage booster launched and recovered two times before soared into a clear morning sky over California’s Central Coast on Monday with 64 small satellites, then returned to a pinpoint landing on a vessel parked offshore in the Pacific Ocean, potentially to be flown again.
The first stage of the Falcon 9 rocket launched Monday became the first commercial booster to achieve three flights hauling satellites to orbit, pushing SpaceX dichterbij zijn doel van re-vliegende boosters 10 keer zonder onderhoud of renovatie tussen missies. Elon Musk, SpaceX’s billionaire founder and chief executive, considers that the goal of the company’s mission to reduce the cost of space transportation, enabling exploration – and ultimately settlements – on Mars.
Going into Monday’s launch, SpaceX had re-launched one of its Falcon 9 boosters 17 times, including a pair of modified first stages used on the inaugural flight of company’s Falcon Heavy Rocket in February. But none of the boosters had launched more than twice before Monday’s re-flight of a first stage that debuted May 11 with a launch from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, landed on a drone ship in the Atlantic Ocean, then lifted off again Aug. 7 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and touched down again on the drone ship.
SpaceX transported the rocket by road from Florida to Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, for final launch preps to blast off for a third time.  The 229-foot-tall (70-meter), two-stage Falcon 9 rocket – its booster stage covered in soot and scorch marks from two fiery trips to the edge of space and back – ignited its nine Merlin main engines and lifted off from Vandenberg Air Force Base at 10:34:05 am PST (1:34:05 pm EST; 1834: 05 GMT) Monday.
The launcher tilted towards the south, riding 1.7 million pounds of thrust into a cloudless late autumn sky at the military-run spaceport around 140 miles (225 miles north of Los Angeles.
The first stage shut down its engines less than two and a half minutes into the mission after accelerating the rocket to a velocity of more than 3,600 mph (about 5,900 kilometers per hour), and pneumatic pushers separated the booster from the Falcon 9’s second stage, which SpaceX builds new for each mission.
While the upper stage’s single Merlin engine ignited for a roughly seven-and-a-half minute firing to place the mission’s payloads into orbit, the first stage fired a subset of its engines for boost-back and entry burns to aim the descending rocket for SpaceX’s drone ship “Just Read the Instruction” located around 30 miles (50 miles) off the coast of Vandenberg in the Pacific Ocean .
The Fal con 9 rocket’s first stage descends back to Earth as its engines four for the entry burn before landing on SpaceX’s drone ship in the Pacific Ocean on Monday. Credit: SpaceX
Long-range tracking cameras at Vandenberg captured spectacular views of the rocket coming back to Earth, then lighting its center engine and extending four landing legs before nailing a landing on the drone ship – all within view of spectators on the coast, thanks to an unusually clear morning at the military base.
SpaceX’s rocket landing drone ships are typically parked hundreds of miles offshore, but the company’s California-based rocket recovery vessel held position much closer to shore Monday.
Meanwhile, the Falcon 9’s second stage continued firing until T + plus 10 minutes to reach a targeted orbit around 357 miles (575 miles) above Earth, flying on a north-to-south path inclined 97.8 degrees to the equator.
During the second stage burn, the Falcon 9 jettisoned its clamshell-like nose shroud, which covered the mission’s 64 small satellite payloads during the first few minutes of the flight. After falling away from the rocket, the two halves of the fairing unfurled parafoils to slow their fall back to Earth, where a SpaceX-leased fast-moving boat named “Mr. Steven “tried to catch the shroud with a giant net.”
The fairing catch attempt Monday was the first in more than four months by SpaceX, but Mr. Steven missed the fairing halves, despite the installation of a larger net earlier this year, and several apparent practice runs in recent weeks using test hardware dropped from a helicopter.
Musked after the launch of Monday, the fairing halves will be retrieved from the sea, dried and used again.
But it’s not clear how easy it will be to refurbish fairings after dropping into salt water. The method of catching the fairings using a net was intended to keep the shrouds away from the corrosive effects of sea water, a problem that lengthens the time needed for SpaceX to refurbish Dragon cargo capsules for reuse after splashing down into the ocean.
Earlier this year, Musk said the fairing costs were around $ 6 million, representing about 10 percent of the total cost of a Falcon 9 launch. Omtrent 60 procent van de marginale kosten van een Falcon 9-introductie komt uit de eerste fase, 20 procent van de tweede fase, en ongeveer 10 procent van de verwerking, het testen en assembleren van een raket voor vlucht, volgens Musk.
SpaceX har tilbudt rabatter fra Falcon 9s annoncerede salgspris på $ 62 millioner for kunder som er villige til at placere deres satellitter på en genbrugt raket, eller som SpaceX kan lide at sige, en flight-proven booster. Musk said in May that SpaceX then charged around $ 50 million for flights using a previously-flown first stage, and he expected a “steady reduction in prices” as the company gains experience with reusing rockets, and as SpaceX pays off what Musk has said was a billion dollar investment in the ability to recover and re-fly boosters.
Mr. Steven, SpaceX’s fairing recovery ship. Credit: SpaceX
In May, Musk said Falcon 9 launches could cost as little as $ 5 million or $ 6 million per flight within around three years, assuming SpaceX can quickly re-launch first stage boosters, payload shrouds, and eventually Falcon 9 second stages. But after considering upgrades to beef up the Falcon 9 second stage for re-entry – it travels faster than the first stage, and would need to survive higher entry temperatures – Musk Tweeted Nov. 16: “SpaceX is not planning to upgrade Falcon 9 second stage for reusability.”
After a few initial crash landings, SpaceX’s recoveries of Falcon 9 first stages continue to produce results. More than half of SpaceX’s 19 launches this year have flown with reused boosters.
The new Block 5 version of the Falcon 9 rocket introduced in May includes changes to make the first stage easier to recover and reuse. Men re-flying the boosters is still a learning process for SpaceX, said Hans Koenigsmann, SpaceX’s vice president of build and flight reliability
“One of the problems is fatigue,” he said in Oct. 3 remarks at the International Astronautical Congress in Bremen, Germany. “You’ve got to watch the life cycle on components. De vibrerer, basically, og du har fått en øye på frakturkontrollen og sørg for at du ikke har noen frakturer på disse komponenter. That is actually not new. Helicopters do this right now. They are basically vibration machines, and they track, actually, the number of cycles, and they know exactly when they have to go into maintenance or preventive maintenance.
“Something similar is what we can do here on the rocket,” Koenigsmann Continued. “Vi kan basically record the flightload, og så logg dette til historien av partiet, og vi kan finne ut når den del må byttes, om den faktisk må byttes. Ideally, you do not want to change parts. “
Asked about how well the Block 5 boosters are holding up after each launch, Koenigsmann said:” I’m actually surprised. The launch of course, the engines see pretty hot exhaust gas to start with, so putting the engines into the (re-entry) flow should be fine … I’m surprised how well the engines hold up. There are details. We receive damage, and we have made adjustments, I would say. Det er en del av årsaken til at vi har disse blokker. We basically roll in changes to … improve the vehicle. At this point in time, I’m actually pretty happy. “
On mission launch satellites to geostationary orbit, a perch more than 22,000 miles (above 36,000 miles) above Earth, the first stage can reach speeds of over 5,000 mph, subjecting it to hotter re-entry conditions on the way back to Earth. For payloads destined for low Earth orbit, a few hundred miles up, the first stage does not have to travel as fast.
Hans Königsmann, SpaceX’s vice president of build and flight reliability. Credit: NASA / Kim Shiflett
“There are some of the hotter re-entries, it’s still something we work on to perfect them and to make sure,” Koenigsmann said. “In the end, the goal is to take the rocket and move it over and launch again.
Speaking to reporters Monday at the Kennedy Space Center, Koenigsmann said he hopes SpaceX can re-fly the same rocket twice. In 24 hours next year, a goal set by Musk earlier this year.
“It depends a bit on how the missions work out,” Koenigsmann said Monday. “I hope we can do this next year … but it might slip a little bit. Det er sikkert noe vi ønsker å prøve så snart vi får sjansen. Det beror på hvilke missioner som er klar. “
” The majority of work is the engine, “he said in October. “We refurbish the engine. De fleste av det er faktisk dele som ikke er kvalificerede til næste fly, så vi bare bytter de dele. It’s not actual damage. Det er en forebyggende vedlikeholdsårsdag, hvor vi vet at denne del kan svigte neste gang, så vi bare tar ikke risikoen, og vi bytter det. We have some impact damage from stuff that flies out of the heat shield and hits the aero cover. That’s pretty much what it is. It’s actually not that bad. “
” The aero cover is the thing that basically is the raceway on the side, “he said.” We are looking into the tanks to make sure there are no surprises in the tank, and so far we’ve found only clean tanks on the inside. We sometimes see damage from the thermal protection system that impacts the aero covers, so they are reinforced to make sure we do not break anything on landings. “
” In terms of refurbishment and building a new rocket, it’s way cheaper to refurbish , “Koenigsmann said.
” This did not happen overnight, “Koenigsmann said of the reusability effort. “We worked on this for many, many years, and we put a lot of money in there, and it was our own money that we put in there.”
SpaceX had some financial help, not only from Musk’s fortune, but also from venture capital investments, and a cash infusion from Google. The company’s revenue-earning launch activity also generated money from commercial customers, plus NASA and the U.S. Air Force, which has billions of dollars in contracts with SpaceX. Much of that revenue was invested into research and development.
The next launch by SpaceX is scheduled for Wednesday from Cape Canaveral, where a Falcon 9 rocket is set for takeoff with a Dragon cargo craft heading for the International Space Station. The resupply launch will be SpaceX’s 20th mission of the year.
SpaceX, Spaceflight partner to deploy 64 satellites in orbit
An orbital ballet of sort took over once the Falcon 9 rocket’s 10-minute powered flight sequence ended on Monday’s launch, involving the release of 64 small satellites, most of which were carried on two free-flying deployment buses designed and outfitted by Spaceflight, a company based near Seattle, which specializes in securing launch bookings for small satellite operators.
Spaceflight has booked satellite launches on Antares, Dnepr, PSLV, Soyuz and Vega missions, but the company had never purchased the full capacity of a rocket until announcing plans for the dedicated rideshare mission known as SSO-A: SmallSat Express, by 2015.
Most of the satellites on the SSO-A mission, which included 15 microsatellites and 49 CubeSats, were installed on two free flyers at Spaceflight’s facility in Auburn, Washington, officials said.
The deployment structure developed by Spaceflight consists of two hubs – an upper and lower free flyer – carrying satellites and CubeSat dispensers.
Artist’s illustration of one of the free flyers on the SSO-A mission separating from the Falcon 9’s second stage, which carried four microsatellites on its own multi-payload carrier. Credit: Spaceflight
Curt Blake, president of Spaceflight, said the free flyers were based on Spaceflight’s Sherpa Space Tug, which the company intended to launch for the first time on a Falcon 9 flight shared with Taiwan’s Formosat 5 Earth Observation Satellite. But delays in Formosat 5’s launch, caused in part by a Falcon 9 rocket explosion on a launch pad in 2016, prompted Spaceflight to cancel the mission and find alternative launch opportunities for the smallsats reserved on the Sherpa flight.
The Formosat 5 Mission finally launched in August 2017.
“Generally, we call it the Sherpa,” Blake said of the SSO-A mission in an interview with Spaceflight Now earlier this year. “But it is actually more than one hub. There’s an upper free flyer and and a lower free flyer. There’s a lot of spacecraft on each of those. It’s kind of a combination stack. “
A few of the larger passengers on the SSO-A mission were shipped directly to the Falcon 9 launch site at Vandenberg Air Force Base, where technicians mated them to the free flyers. In addition to the 60 payloads on the free flyers, four microsatellites were attached directly to the Falcon 9’s second stage, which commanded their separation after arriving in orbit.
The entire payload stack riding into the orbit on the Falcon 9 rocket weighed around 4 metric tons – almost 9,000 pounds – at the time of launch.
Both free flyers and the four microsatellites attached to the Falcon 9’s second stage were in orbit by the T + plus 43-minute point in the mission, but Spaceflight’s deployment module is itself continued on, using on-board batteries to power avionics and issue commands to release the separate 60 spacecraft.
The exact sequence of the satellite separation maneuvers was considered proprietary by Spaceflight, but mission managers said each deployment was timed approximately every five to six minutes, with the final payload set for separation around 4 hours, 45 minutes, after liftoff – approximately 3:19 pm PST (6:19 p.m. EST; 2319 GMT).
It was then expected to take another hour or so for Spaceflight to confirm all the satellites have separated, once the free flyers pass over a ground station to enable communications. There were no on-board cameras on either free flyer, according to Spaceflight.
“We have developed a deployment sequence that is based on a high-fidelity analysis that we did specifically to ensure that our customers do not collide into each Other at deployment, so we’re taking our time, “said Jeff Roberts, Spaceflight’s SSO-A mission manager, said in an interview with Spaceflight Now. “Vi garanterer at vi faser det for å maksimere avstanden i separasjon mellom alle våre kunder.”
That should help the U.S. military, which tracks objects in orbit, more quickly identify the satellites released on the SSO-A mission, a problem that has caused headaches in the past.
The free flyers were designed to operate as independent spacecraft themselves, with their own computers , electronics and batteries.
“We refer to them as free flyers because that’s exactly what they are. There is no propulsion system on board. They just simply keep all the avionics and the dispensers to command deployment, “Roberts said.
The upper free flyer is based on a commonly used secondary payload adapter – known as an ESPA ring – built by Moog.
The free flyer modules, which had a 16-hour battery life, will unleash drag sails after the satellite deployments to help bring the dispensers back into Earth’s atmosphere.
The lower free flyer is Spaceflight’s own design, according to Roberts. ] Spaceflight has not publicly released an account of all 64 payloads aboard the SSO-A rideshare mission, citing non-disclosure agreements signed with the company’s customers. But Roberts said the company provided a list to the Federal Communications Commission to obtain launch licenses for the mission, and Spaceflight submitted the separation sequence, information on spacecraft sizes, and points-of-contact for each payload to the U.S. Military’s Combined Space Operations Center, which is charged with cataloging, tracking and identifying all objects launched into orbit.
Roberts said some concerns about the mission are unfounded, such as concerns about the difficulty of tracking the smallsats launched on the SSO-A mission to ensure they do not create a space debris hazard.
Some customers have disclosed their payloads on the SSO-A launch.
This oblique view of Lower Manhattan in New York City was captured by one of Planet’s SkySat satellites. Credit: Planet
Planet was one of the major commercial customers on the mission. Two of its SkySat microsatellites and three Dove CubeSats – debuting new camera and telescope designs – joined its large fleet of Earth-imaging craft in orbit, which now numbers 137 active satellites. Planet also sponsored the launch of two CubeSats from the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of Colorado at Boulder’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics.
Three missions funded by the U.S. Military were among the largest spacecraft on the SSO-A mission. They are STPS 5, a microsatellite from the Air Force’s Space Test Program, which hosts five experiments, the eXCITe spacecraft funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency – DARPA – and the FalconSat 6 satellite built by students at the Air Force Academy.
There was also a microsatellite from DLR, the German Aerospace Center, named Eu: CROPIS, which carries tomato seeds to monitor how they germinate and grow in reduced gravity. The spacecraft will slowly spin during its mission, simulating gravity conditions on the moon and Mars.
Spaceflight announced in a press release Monday evening that all 64 microsatellites and CubeSats were successfully separated into orbit. Many of the satellite owners announced they acquired signals or beacons from their spacecraft, confirming their status following Monday’s ride into orbit on top of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket.
“This was an incredibly complex mission, and I’m extremely proud of what our talented team at Spaceflight has achieved, “Blake said in a post-launch statement. “SSO-A is a major milestone for spaceflight and the industry. We’ve always been committed to making space more accessible through rideshare. This mission enabled 34 organizations from 17 different countries to place spacecraft on orbit. Det er også specielt fordi det var helt dedikeret til smallsats. “
The mission set a record for the highest number of satellites ever to launch on a U.S. rocket, but it fell short of the global mark of 104 satellites, which flew on a single Indian rocket last year.
Two managers involved with additional payloads aboard the SSO-A mission – SeaHawk 1 and Capella 1 – offered their thoughts after The successful launch.
“We are thrilled to have SeaHawk-1 on orbit and to be part of such a historic launch, superbly executed by Spaceflight,” said John Morrison, SeaHawk’s co-project manager and lead principal investigator at the University of North Carolina Wilmington. “SeaHawk will make ocean observations to significantly higher spatial resolution and at much lower costs than standard satellite systems. Siden de data, der samles, vil være offentligt tilgængelige, er vores håb, at det vil være til nytte for forskere, men politimakere og andre til å ta informerte beslutninger når det gjelder problemer som er relatert til miljøet. “
” Denne lancering var en imponerende bedrift og en vigtig milestone for the small industry as well as for many of the organizations involved, “said Payam Banazadeh, founder and CEO of Capella Space Corporation. “Capella’s first satellite is now on orbit and we are one step closer to our goal of providing timely, reliable, and frequent information using synthetic aperture radar technology.”
The British Small Sate Manufacturer SSTL confirmed the 231-pound (105 kilograms ) KazSTSAT Earth-imaging satellite contacted ground controllers to confirm its health. KazSTSAT was one of the biggest payloads launched today, and it is owned by Ghalam LLC, a joint venture between JSC “National Company Kazakhstan Garysh Sapary” (KGS) and Airbus Defense and Space.
The ICEYE X2 radar imaging satellite, the second spacecraft launched by the Finnish company ICEYE, was also broadcast telemetry after its deployment Monday. ICEYE says it has eight more spacecraft due for launch by the end of 2019, as the company seeks to build the world’s largest constellation of synthetic aperture radar satellites. Earlier this year, the company became the first to send a satellite with a mass of less than 100 kilograms – about 220 pounds – into orbit with a radar imager, a type of all-weather Earth observation instrument previously relegated to heavier, more power- hungry, and more expensive spacecraft.
Artist’s concept of the ICEYE X2 radar satellite. Credit: ICEYE
One of the CubeSats on the Falcon 9 launch – Elysium Star 2 – Carries cremated human remains, and another was conceived as an art project and sponsored by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art to Honor Robert Lawrence, an African American astronaut was selected for the US Air Force’s Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program. A bust of Lawrence, who died in 1967 before he flew in space, is on the Enoch CubeSat.
“To honor the astronaut’s legacy, (Tavares) Strachan created a 24-carat gold canopic jar with a bust of Lawrence,” The Los Angeles County Museum of Art wrote on a page deviated to the mission. “The canopy jar nods to a practice employed by the ancient Egyptians to protect and preserve organs of the deceased for use in the afterlife. The canopic jar was blessed at a Shinto shrine in Fukuoka, Japan, and was recognized as a container for Lawrence’s soul. “
Spaceflight considers future rideshare plans after SSO-A’s ‘complex undertaking’
Blake told Spaceflight Now the SSO-A mission turned out to be a complex undertaking.
“To fill, or to make profitable buying a rocket the size of Falcon 9, you have to aggregate a lot of small spacecraft, “he said.” Just understanding what kind of timescale that’s going to take and how many satellites you’re going to have to aggregate to hit that one point in time – det er en lektion – bare at forstå, hvor det er, og hvordan difficult it is.
“The second one is during the timeframe as you are getting ready, different customers have different potential issues,” he added. “Some float through as easy as can be. Others may have difficulties along the way. We’ve had to move different customers around on the stack. Det betyder at du virkelig trenger å konfigurere og rekonfigurere stacken, og de elektronikk som går i deployments. “
Seven CubeSats dropped off the SSO-A mission since August because they were not ready for launch , or had difficulty obtaining regulatory approval.
The record number of satellites launched on a single rocket is 104, set by an Indian PSLV mission last year. Sommige van die payloads waren klanten van Spaceflight, maar niet allemaal. The SSO-A mission will set a record for the most satellites aboard a U.S. launcher.
Blake said Spaceflight has no immediate plans to buy another dedicated Falcon 9 launch.
“We are making sure to see how this one goes another one this big, “Blake said.” Having said that, we are actively looking at different ones on medium-sized launch vehicles.
The company has agreements for future smallsat rideshare launches on Arianespace’s Vega Rocket, Rocket Lab’s Electron, and Virgin Orbit’s air-dropped LauncherOne vehicle – all significantly less and less expensive than Falcon 9, which currently sells for around $ 50 million to $ 60 million per flight.
“We know about aggregating a number of payloads on small launch vehicles, “Blake said.” You can think of those as dedicated missions as well, where we’ve got five or 10 different spacecraft on a smaller launch vehicle, 30 or 40 on a medium-sized launch vehicle. “
Here’s a list of most of the payloads on the SSO-A mission, based on the best public information available. 19659091] The Audience Zero – Audacy – USA
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