November 26, 2018 / 10:05 PM GMT By Associated Press SAO PAULO – Scientists warn that Brazil's chosen president was…
By Associated Press
SAO PAULO – Scientists warn that Brazil’s chosen president was able to drive the Amazon rainforest past its tip – with serious consequences for global climate and rain
Jair Bolsonaro, who takes office on January 1, claims a mandate to transform land into cattle fields and soybean farmers, which calls Brazil’s rainforest protection a financial obstacle.
Brazil contains about 60 percent of the Amazon rainforest and researchers are worried.
It is almost impossible to overdo the importance of the Amazon rainforest for the planet’s living system, “said Carlos Nobre, climate researcher at Sao Paulo University.
Each tree stores carbon absorbed from the atmosphere. The Amazon takes as much as 2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, releasing 20 percent of the planet’s acid and earning the nickname “the lungs of the planet”.
It is also a global weather maker.
0 times Texas, Amazon is the world’s largest rainforest. Million trees suck the water through deep roots and pick it up to their leaves, releasing water vapor that forms a thick mist over the rainforest.
This fog goes up into clouds and eventually rain becomes a bicycle that forms seasons in South America and far away.
Amazon creates an estimate of 30-50 percent of its own precipitation.
Now the integrity of all three functions – like a carbon sink, the lungs of the earth and a rainmaker – is in balance.
On October 28, Brazilian Bolsonaro, a right-wing candidate, channeled corruption against the corruption scandals of the former government and support from agribusiness groups. His election lasted weeks before an international summit in December, where leaders will discuss how to cope with climate change.
On the campaign trail, Bolsonaro promised to release protection for areas of the Brazilian Amazon designated as native countries and nature reserves, which call them barriers to economic growth. “All these reserves cause development problems,” he told supporters.
Brazil’s selected Jair Bolsonaro, left, attends a ceremony in Rio de Janeiro on November 24, 2018. Marcelo Sayao / EPA
He has also repeatedly talked about reducing the power of the Ministry of the Environment to enforce existing green laws.
“If Bolsonaro is keeping its campaign ceilings, the deforestation of Amazon is likely to increase rapidly – and its effects will be felt everywhere on the planet,” says Paulo Artaxo, professor of environmental science at the University of Sao Paulo.
Bolsonaro’s Transition Team did not respond to an interview request from the Associated Press.
Brazil was once seen as a global success story for the environment. Between 2004 and 2014, more stringent legislation to protect the rainforest – using regular satellite surveillance and protection for selected reserves for indigenous peoples – heavily limited deforestation rate, peaked at the beginning of the 2000s at about 9,650 square kilometers a year (25,000 square kilometers.)  After a political crisis swallowed Brazil, which led to the death of President Dilma Rousseff in 2016, the execution fainted. Ranchers and farmers began converting more rainforest to pasture and cultivation fields. Between 2014 and 2017, annual deforestation doubled to approximately 3,090 square kilometers (8,000 square kilometers ). Mostly, the trees and the chest simply burn and emit carbon dioxide, “says Artaxo.
” In the Brazilian Amazon, the largest source of deforestation is the industrial agricultural and livestock ranch, “said Emilio Bruna, an ecologist at the University of Florida in Gainesville.
Members of the National Center for the Prevention and Control of Forest Fires (PREVFOGO) fight a forest fire on the Porquinho’s country of origin in Maranhao- The state in Brazil on September 26, 2017. Felipe Werneck / Ibama via AP
Observers now observe Bolsonaro’s campaign statements and stand as a congressman to predict what’s next for Amazon.
Bolsonaro – which calls “tropical trump” due to some similarities with US President Donald Trump – is a former Army captain with the ability to channel rebellions and generate headlines. As a federal congressman for 27 years, he led legislative campaigns to unravel land protection for native people and to promote agribusiness.
Much of his support comes from business and agricultural interests.
“These peasants are not invaders, they are producers,” said Congressman and Senator elected Luiz Carlos Heinze, a farmer and close ally with Bolsonaro. He blamed past “leftist governments” to promote domestic rights at the expense of farmers and ranchers.
“Brazil will be the largest agricultural nation on Earth during Bolsonaro’s year,” said Heinze.
Domestic rights advocates are worried about the new direction being signaled. “Bolsonaro has repeatedly said that the domestic territories of the Amazon should be opened for mining and agricultural activity, which is completely contrary to our constitution,” said Adriana Ramos, political coordinator of the Social Environmental Institute in Brasilia, a non-state
Bolsonaro has in a 1st choice interview with Catholic television said “We intend to protect the environment without creating difficulties for our progress”.
Bolsonaro has repeatedly said that Brazil should withdraw from the Paris climate agreement, a treaty signed by its predecessor in 2016 commits itself to reducing CO2 emissions by 37 percent compared to 2005 levels by 2030. After the election, he has been publicly surprised.
Meanwhile, he has been appointed a climate change detector, Ernesto Araujo, to become the next foreign minister.
Nelson Ananias Filho, Sustainability Coordinator of Brazil’s National Agricultural and Corporations Association, who supported the Bolsonaro campaign said: “Brazil’s farm will adapt, regardless of the circumstances.”
If Brazil remains formal in the Paris Climate Agreement, the only way for the country is to make its emission target to completely stop deforestation by 2030 and to reduce agricultural emissions, says climate scientist Nobre. “If Bolsonaro continues to move in the current direction, it’s basically impossible.”
There is another danger that deceives the deforestation.
Ibama agents navigate the Novo River after having set fire on a structure used by people as illegal mining in Jamanxim National Forest in the Amazon basin in Brazil on June 24, 2017. Felipe Werneck / Ibama via AP file
Aside from the oceans, tropical forests are the most important regions of the planet to put water vapor into the air, which eventually gets rain. “That’s why we have rain in the American Midwest and other inner areas – it’s not just Amazon, but it’s the largest tropical rainforest,” said Bill Laurance, a tropical ecologist at James Cook University in Cairns, Australia.
Carlos Nobre and Thomas Lovejoy, an environmental researcher at George Mason University, have estimated that the “hub of the Amazon system” is 20-25 percent deforestation.
If there were not enough trees to maintain the rain, the longer and more pronounced dry period could turn more than half of the rainforest into a tropical savannah, they wrote in February in the Science Advances magazine.
If the rain cycle collapses, winter wiping in parts of Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina can destroy agriculture, they wrote. The effects may even feel as far away as the American West, said Laurance.
Bolsonaro’s rhetoric about potentially disassembling the Ministry of the Environment and reversing domestic rights concerns Nobre who says “I am a researcher, but I am also a Brazilian citizen and a citizen on the planet.”
AP Health and Science author Christina Larson Reported from Washington, DC
The Associated Press Health & Science Department receives support from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Department of Science Education. AP is solely responsible for all content.
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