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Research highlights genomic properties that make plants good candidates for domestication

<div data-thumb = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/tmb/2019/researchshed.jpg" data-src = "https: //3c1703fe8d.site.internetcdn .net / newman / gfx / news / hires / 2019 / researchshed.jpg "data-sub-html =" Left: Highly branched plants of teosinte, a wild relative of corn. Right: small beans on the wine Glycine Soya [NewresearchhighlightshowdomesticationaffectscornandsoybeansCredit:SherryFlint-Garcia(theosinte)andScottJackson( Glycine soybean )><img src = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/800/2019/researchshed.jpg" alt = "Research highlights genomic properties that make plants good candidates for taming" title = " Left: Highly branched Teosinte plants, a wild correlation of corn Right: small beans on the wine Glycine soybean wild ratio to soybeans New research shows how taming affects the genomes of maize and soybeans Credit: Sherry Flint-Garcia (teosinte) and Scott Jackson ( Glycine soybean ) "/>Left: Highly branched Teosinte plants, a wild maid's relative. Right: small beans on the vine of [Glycinesoybean soybean ratio. New research highlights how domestication affects the genomes of corn and soybeans. Credit: Sherry Flint-Garcia (teosinte) and Scott Jackson ( Glycine soy ) New research published this week identifies the genomic functions that may have made domestication possible for corn and soybeans, two of the world's most critical plant species. The research, published Thursday in the peer-reviewed academic journal Genome Biology has implications for how researchers understand domestication, or the process by which humans have been able to grow plants for desirable traits through the centuries of cultivation. The researchers drew large amounts of data on the maize and soybean genomes, and compared specific parts of the genomes of wild species and native varieties, and noted that the genomes diverged most…

<div data-thumb = “https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/tmb/2019/researchshed.jpg” data-src = “https: //3c1703fe8d.site.internetcdn .net / newman / gfx / news / hires / 2019 / researchshed.jpg “data-sub-html =” Left: Highly branched plants of teosinte, a wild relative of corn. Right: small beans on the wine Glycine Soya [NewresearchhighlightshowdomesticationaffectscornandsoybeansCredit:SherryFlint-Garcia(theosinte)andScottJackson( Glycine soybean )><img src = “https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/800/2019/researchshed.jpg” alt = “Research highlights genomic properties that make plants good candidates for taming” title = ” Left: Highly branched Teosinte plants, a wild correlation of corn Right: small beans on the wine Glycine soybean wild ratio to soybeans New research shows how taming affects the genomes of maize and soybeans Credit: Sherry Flint-Garcia (teosinte) and Scott Jackson ( Glycine soybean ) “/>Left: Highly branched Teosinte plants, a wild maid’s relative. Right: small beans on the vine of [Glycinesoybean soybean ratio. New research highlights how domestication affects the genomes of corn and soybeans. Credit: Sherry Flint-Garcia (teosinte) and Scott Jackson ( Glycine soy )

New research published this week identifies the genomic functions that may have made domestication possible for corn and soybeans, two of the world’s most critical plant species.

The research, published Thursday in the peer-reviewed academic journal Genome Biology has implications for how researchers understand domestication, or the process by which humans have been able to grow plants for desirable traits through the centuries of cultivation. The researchers drew large amounts of data on the maize and soybean genomes, and compared specific parts of the genomes of wild species and native varieties, and noted that the genomes diverged most significantly.

Iowa State University researchers worked with researchers from the University of Georgia, Cornell University and the University of Minnesota. The researchers studied more than 1

00 accessions from comparisons of maize with teosinte, its predecessor species. They also looked at 302 accessions from a dataset of wild and domestic soybeans.

“We sliced ​​the genomes into specific sections and compared them,” said Jianming Yu, agronomist professor and Pioneer Distinguished Chair in Maize Breeding. “It is a new angle that not many people have looked at in terms of genome development and taming. We searched for” macro changes “or large genome patterns – and we found them.”

Human cultivation created a bottleneck in the genetic material associated with corn and soybeans, Yu said. When people were chosen for particular traits, they found themselves desirable in their crops, limiting the genetic variation available in the plant’s genome. However, the researchers found several areas in the genomes of the species involved in the study where genome divergence appears to concentrate.

“These patterns of genetic base changes provide insight into how the strain affects the genetics of species,” said Jinyu Wang, the first author of the magazine and a graduate student in agronomy.

Variation in nucleotide bases between wild and domesticated species appeared more pronounced in non-genetic portions of the genomes or parts of the genomes that do not encode proteins. The study also found greater variation in pericentromere regions or in areas near chromosome centers, and in areas of high methylation or areas where methyl groups are added to a DNA molecule. Methylation can alter the activity of a DNA segment without altering its sequence.

The study looked at the presence of mutations in the genomes of domesticated crops and their predecessors.

“We now believe that good candidates for domestication, such as corn and soybeans, are likely to occupy a middle class in their willingness to mutate,” said Xianran Li, adjunct professor of agronomy and an accompanying author of the study.

” If there is no mutation, then everything stays the same and we have no development, “Yu said.” But too many mutations can wipe out a species. “

The study’s findings pointed to important relationships between UV radiation from the sun and genome development. UV radiation is a natural mutagen, and it leaves a special footprint when it occurs, said Yu. The study’s authors found many more of these footprints in modern corn and soybeans than their wild relatives.


Corn genetics provides insight into the plant’s historical spread across America


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Research highlights genomic properties that make plants good candidates for domestication (2019, April 24)
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