Not all stars are like the sun, so not all planetary systems can be studied with the same expectations. New…
Not all stars are like the sun, so not all planetary systems can be studied with the same expectations. New research from a University of Washington-led astronomers team provides updated climate models for the seven planets around the Star TRAPPIST-1.
The work can also help astronomers to more effectively study planets around stars, unlike our Sun, and better use limited and expensive resources in the James Web Space Telescope, which is now expected to start in 2021.
“We model unknown atmospheres , not only assuming that the things we see in the solar system will look the same around another star, “said Andrew Lincowski, UW doctoral student and leader of a paper published November 1 in the Astrophysical Journal. “We conducted this research to show what these different types of atmosphere can look like.”
The team briefly stated that because of an extremely warm and bright early star phase, all seven star worlds may have evolved like Venus, with some early oceans they may have evaporated and left dense, unbearable atmospheres. However, a planet, TRAPPIST-1
e, may be a marine activity worth studying, as previous research has also indicated.
TRAPPIST-1, 39 light years or about 235 miles away is about as small as a star can be and still be a star. A relatively cool “M dwarf” star – the most common type in the universe – it has about 9 percent of the sun’s mass and about 12 percent its radius. TRAPPIST-1 has a radius just a little bigger than the planet Jupiter, but it is much larger in mass.
All seven of the TRAPPIST-1 planets are about the size of the earth and three of them – planets labeled e, f and g – are believed to be in their habitable zone that surrounds a star where a rocky planet could have floating water on its surface , giving life a chance. TRAPPIST-1 d rides into the inhabited zone, while farther, TRAPPIST-1 h is just over the outer edge of the zone.
“This is a whole series of planets that can give us insight into the evolution of the planet, especially about a star that is very different from ours, with different light coming from it,” said Lincowski. “It’s just a gold mine.”
Past papers have modeled TRAPPIST-1 worlds, meant Lincowski, but he and this research group “tried to make the most rigorous physical modeling we could in terms of radiation and chemistry – tried to get the physics and chemistry as right as possible.” “
The team’s radiation and chemical models create spectral or wavelength signatures for each possible atmospheric gas, enabling observers to better predict where to look for such gases in exoplanet atmospheres.  Lincowski said when traces of gases actually detected by the Web telescope or others, one day, “astronomers will use the observed shocks and fan in spectra to determine which gases are present – and compare it to act as ours to say something about the planet’s composition, environment and perhaps its evolutionary history. “
He said people usually think of a planet’s habitat around stars that resemble the sun.” But M-dwarf stars are very different, so you really need to think about the chemical effects on the atmosphere and how that chemistry affects the climate. “ Combined terrestrial climate models with photochemistry models, scientists simulated environmental results for each TRAPIST-1 world.
Their modeling indicates that:
* TRAPPIST-1b, closest to the star, is a blazing world too hot even for sulfuric acid clouds as in Venus, to form.
* Planets c and d get a little more energy from their star than Venus and Earth from the sun and can be Venus-like, with a dense, unnecessary atmosphere.
* TRAPPIST-1 e are the most likely of the seven that host liquid water on a temperate surface, and would be an excellent choice for further study with habitat in mind.
* The outer planets f, g and h may be Venusliknan they can or can be frozen, depending on how much water is formed on the planet during its evolution.
Lincowski said that, in fact, any or all of the TRAPPIST-1 planets may be Venus-like, with some water or sea burned for a long time. He explained that when the water evaporates from the surface of a planet, ultraviolet light is broken from the star from the water molecules, releasing hydrogen, which is the lightest element and can escape the gravity of a planet.
This could lead to a lot of oxygen, which can remain in the atmosphere and irreversibly remove water from the planet. Such a planet may have a thick oxygen atmosphere – but not one that is generated by life, and differs from what has yet to be observed.
“It may be possible if these planets had more water than in the beginning than the Earth, Venus or Mars,” he said. “If the planet TRAPPIST-1 e did not lose its entire water during this phase, today it can be a world of water, completely covered by a global ocean. In this case, it may have a climate similar to the Earth.”
Lincowski said that this research was done more with an eye on climate development than judging the planet’s habitat. He plans future research focusing more directly on the modeling of water planets and their chances of life.
“Before we knew about this planetary system, estimates of atmospheric detectability for Earth’s planets saw much more difficult” author Jacob Lustig-Yaeger, a doctoral student for UW-astronomy.
The star is so small, he says, will make the signatures of gases (like carbon dioxide) in the planet’s atmosphere more pronounced in telescope data.
The work informs the scientific community of what we expect to see for the TRAPPIST-1 planet with the upcoming space telescope James Webb. “
Lincowski’s other UW co-author is Victoria Meadows, astronomer professor and director of UW’s astrobiology program. Meadows is also the lead researcher of the NASA Astrobiology Institute’s Virtual Planet Laboratory, based on UW. All authors were affiliates of the research lab.
“The processes that shape the evolution of an earthly planet are crucial to whether it can be habitable or our ability to interpret possible signs of life,” Meadows said. “This document suggests that we can soon search for potentially detectable characters on these processes on foreign worlds. “
TRAPPIST-1, in the Waterman Constellation, is named after the Land-based Transit Planetary and Planetesimals Small Telescope, the facility that first found evidence for planets around 2015.
Research Report: Evolved Climates and Observational Discriminants for TRAPPIST-1 Planetary System “, Andrew P. Lincowski et al. , 2018 November 1, Astrophysical Journal