Categories: world

Meet B. fragilis, a bacterium that moves into the stomach and develops to make it home

<div data-thumb = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/tmb/2019/meetbfragili.jpg" data-src = "https: //3c1703fe8d.site.internetcdn .NET / newman / gfx / news / 2019 / meetbfragili.jpg "data-sub-html =" This graphic abstract shows how Bacteroides fragilis adapts via mutation in healthy people. Credit: Zhao et al. Cell Host & Microbe "><img src = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/800/2019/meetbfragili.jpg" alt = "Meet B. fragilis, a bacterium that moves into the stomach and develops for to make yourself at home "title =" This graphic abstract shows how Bacteroides fragilis adapts via mutation in healthy people. Credit: Zhao et al ./Cell Host & Microbe "/>This graphic abstract shows how Bacteroides fragilis adapts via mutation in healthy people. Credit: Zhao et al. / Cell Host & Microbe MIT researchers have analyzed population genomics and metagenomics to investigate the microbiome development of Bacteroides fragilis one of the most common bacteria found in human "colon" In a paper published on April 23 in the journal Cell Host & Microbe the authors describe how the common intestinal micro-organizes and develops within individuals as well as across Western versus Eastern cultures. "The strains of B. Fragilis growing in humans have been in the gut-like environment for millions of years, so that the idea of ​​meeting a new host's intestine would give rise to a lot of new adaptive mutations, and that these benefits would still develop rapidly, it was surprising to us, says Eric Alm, professor of biotechnology and co-chair of the Center for Microbiological Informatics and Therapy at MIT. Alm and his colleagues "analysis revealed at least sixteen genes…

<div data-thumb = “https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/tmb/2019/meetbfragili.jpg” data-src = “https: //3c1703fe8d.site.internetcdn .NET / newman / gfx / news / 2019 / meetbfragili.jpg “data-sub-html =” This graphic abstract shows how Bacteroides fragilis adapts via mutation in healthy people. Credit: Zhao et al. Cell Host & Microbe “><img src = “https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/800/2019/meetbfragili.jpg” alt = “Meet B. fragilis, a bacterium that moves into the stomach and develops for to make yourself at home “title =” This graphic abstract shows how Bacteroides fragilis adapts via mutation in healthy people. Credit: Zhao et al ./Cell Host & Microbe “/>This graphic abstract shows how Bacteroides fragilis adapts via mutation in healthy people. Credit: Zhao et al. / Cell Host & Microbe

MIT researchers have analyzed population genomics and metagenomics to investigate the microbiome development of Bacteroides fragilis one of the most common bacteria found in human “colon” In a paper published on April 23 in the journal Cell Host & Microbe the authors describe how the common intestinal micro-organizes and develops within individuals as well as across Western versus Eastern cultures.

“The strains of B. Fragilis growing in humans have been in the gut-like environment for millions of years, so that the idea of ​​meeting a new host’s intestine would give rise to a lot of new adaptive mutations, and that these benefits would still develop rapidly, it was surprising to us, says Eric Alm, professor of biotechnology and co-chair of the Center for Microbiological Informatics and Therapy at MIT.

Alm and his colleagues “analysis revealed at least sixteen genes undergoing individual development, and the majority of mutations targeted pathways involved in fiber uptake into the cell and biosynthesis of the cell envelope. While the mutations they observed occurred in the same types of genes over and over again, and in similar places in these genes, the specific gene that acquired mutations in each individual was often different, suggesting that the bacteria are ongoing personalization. ” Bacteroides species help you digest complex fibers into the large intestine that come from the food you eat, so adaptations to them can be related to the personal diet,” Shijie Zhao, first author and member of the Alms lab, says. .

The explanation why the genes are targeted cannot be limited to dietary habits alone. For example, it is possible that rapid development is a tactic needed to avoid phages and immune cells. “These mutations may be responsible for altering the pathway.” B. Fragilis interacts with the immune system, “said Tami Lieberman, first author and now an assistant professor of MIT’s civil and environmental engineering department. “Alternatively, it could be a technique to improve its ability to stave off attacks from other microbio members.”

The authors also found differences in mutations between western and eastern metagenomes, with an allele highly chosen for western participants -with independent mutation in each person-but rare in Chinese subjects. This striking difference lies in a gene with an unknown biological role, but the authors believe that one can find out the source of different pressures across the continents can provide new discoveries.

Usually, when researchers consider changes in the microbiome, they see that the species composition of the microbiome remains constant, not what can change within a certain species. But in the light of these findings, one can keep an eye on the adaptive abilities of individual commands, especially in the case of probiotic choices and microbial therapies. There may be more focus.

“It’s not a scary thing &#821

1; I think we just need to be aware and thoughtful that you can do extensive tests in a lab, but when a commensal comes in and out of a real person in the real world it can be developed – its phenotype can change – and it is something that can be difficult to predict, ”says Alm.

Moving forward, the authors plan to carry out more mechanistic studies and carry out metagenomic and genomic analyzes in different types of compensations, both under disease and healthy conditions, to better understand the extent of development within the microbiome.

“If this pattern of gut bacteria develops very quickly after the introduction to a new host, we will carefully look at completely different pathways in different types of bacteria, one when it becomes quite exciting,” says Alm.


Researchers find compounds between structural variation in gut microbial and host health


More information:
Shijie Zhao et al., Adaptive Evolution in Gut Microbiomes of Healthy People, Cell Host & Microbe (2019). DOI: 10,1016 / j.chom.2019.03.007

Citation :
Meet B. fragilis, a bacterium that moves into the stomach and develops to make it home (2019, April 23)
downloaded April 24, 2019
from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-fragilis-bacterium-gut-evolves-home.html

This document is subject to copyright. Except for any fair trade for private study or research, no
Some may be reproduced without written permission. The content is provided for informational purposes only.

Share
Published by
Faela