Large Hadron Collider (LHC) gets a big boost for its performance. Unfortunately, for fans of groundbreaking physics, the entire case…
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) gets a big boost for its performance. Unfortunately, for fans of groundbreaking physics, the entire case must be closed for two years while the work is complete. But when it’s time again, the enhanced features will make it even more powerful.
The core of the Large Hadron Collider is to accelerate particles and then direct them to collide with each other in chambers. Cameras and detectors are trained on these collisions, and the results are monitored in detail. It’s about discovering new particles and new reactions between particles and looking at how particles are decaying.
and it took place between 2013 and 2015. During the LS1 Force’s power, it was improved, and that was its detection capacity. The same will happen during LS2, as engineers enhance and upgrade the entire accelerator complex and detectors. The work is in preparation for the next LHC run, which will start in 2021. It is also preparing for a project called the HL-LHC project (HL-LHC), which begins in 2025.
A look inside ALICE on the Large Hadron Collider. ALICE is one of LHC’s four particle detectors. Image: CERN / LHC
The run of experiments made between LS1 and LS2 is called the second time and went from 2015 to 2018. The run yielded some impressive results and a number of data that are still being processed. According to CERN, the second round produced 16 million billion proton proton collisions at an energy of 13 TeV (tera electron volts) and large datasets for lead lead collisions at an energy of 5.02 TeV. This means that it corresponds to 1000 years of 24/7 video streaming stored in CERN’s data register.
“LHC’s second round has been impressive …” – Frédérick Bordry, CERN Director of Accelerators and Technology.  The huge cache of data from the experiments under LHC’s second run dwarfs data from the first race, and it simply depends on the collision’s energy level almost doubled to 13 TeV. It will be harder and harder to raise the energy level of a collider, and this second shutdown will see the energy raised from 13 TeV to 14 TeV.
“LHC’s second race has been impressive because we could deliver far beyond our goals and expectations, producing five times more data than in the first round, at the unforeseen energy of 13 TeV,” said Frédérick Bordry, CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology. “With this second long shutdown, we are starting to prepare the machine for even more collisions with 14V TEV design energy.”
Through each action, LHC has been a success. For several decades, the existence of Higgs boson and Higgs field The central issue in physics. But the technology and technology required to build a collider that is powerful enough to find it was simply unavailable. The construction of LHC made the discovery of Higgs boson possible in 2012.
“Higgs boson is a special particle … “- Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director General.
” In addition to many other beautiful results, the LHC experiments are under the recent years made enormous progress in understanding the characteristics of Higgs boson, “adds Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director General. “Higgs boson is a special particle, very different from the other elementary particles so far, its properties can give us useful indications of physics beyond the standard model.”
The discovery of the long-theorized Higgs boson is LHC’s crown achievement, but not the only one. Many parts of the standard physics model were difficult to test before the LHC was built. Hundreds of scientific articles have been published about the results of LHC and some new particles have been discovered, including exotic pentaquarks and a new particle with two heavy quarks, called “Xicc ++”.
Among the great Hadron Collider discovery is the so-called “Xicc ++”, a particle with two heavy quarks. Image: CERN
After the upgrades in LS2, the third race begins. One of the projects in the third race is the HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) project. Luminosity is one of the two primary considerations in colliders. The first is voltage, which is improved from 13 TeV to 14 TeV under LS2. The other is brightness.
Brightness means an increased number of collisions, and hence more data. Since many of the things physicists want to observe are very rare, the number of collisions increases the odds of seeing them. In 2017, LHC produced about three million Higgs bosons per year, while High Luminosity LHC will produce at least 15 million Higgs bosons per year. This is important because it was a great achievement to discover Higgs boson, there are still many physicists who do not know about the painful particle. By quintupling the number of Higgs boson produced, physicists will learn a lot.
One of Large Hadron Collider Massive dipol magnets replaced under Long Shutdown 1. Image Credit: CERN / Anna Pantelia
“The Rich The harvest in the second race allows researchers to look for very rare processes. ” – Eckhard Elsen, Research Director for CERN.
All data stored at CERN from LHC’s second run means that physicists will be held under LS2. There may be things hidden in the massive collection of data that nobody has ever seen. There is no rest for the army of the eager party of mankind.
“The rich harvest in the second race allows researchers to look for very rare processes,” said Eckhard Elsen, Research Director at CERN. “They will be busy throughout the shutdown and investigate the huge data sample for potential signatures of new physics that have not had the chance to appear from the dominant contribution of standard model processes. This will lead us into HL-LHC when data security increases with yet another size order. “