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How many photos has the universe produced

Ancient Starlight Astrophysics estimate that our universe was formed 13.7 billion years ago, where the first stars were formed when…

Ancient Starlight

Astrophysics estimate that our universe was formed 13.7 billion years ago, where the first stars were formed when the universe was only a few hundred million years old. By peering back at the earliest days of star formation, researchers in South Carolina have measured all the star beams ever produced throughout the history of the observable universe.

Researchers have worked to achieve this measure, also known as extragalactic backlighting (EBL) or “cosmic fog” for a long time. “EBL represents the book that reports the story of star activity and galaxy development in the universe,” said Marco Ajello, senior researcher and astrophysician at Clemson College of Science in South Carolina, in an email.

Measuring EBL can be a great tool for researchers who helping them to better understand galaxy development, star formation processes and how the universe has evolved, Ajello explained. However, researchers have not been able to measure this since EBL is much dimmer than the Milky Way and other lights in the night sky. Researchers could not observe far away galaxies because they were for dark and brighter in the foreground further deepened this view. Now, using an indirect method, researchers have finally made this measurement.

The team found that the amount of starlight, or the number of photons (visible light particles) that stars have emitted in the observable universe history, is 4 x 1

0 ^ 84 photons. Or alternatively, 4,000. 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,
000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 photons.

An indirect measurement

The team could make this star measurement by observing blazars or galaxies with super massive black holes radiating radiation of matter and radiation in our direction, using NASA’s Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope.

“Using blazars at different distances from us, we measured the overall headlight at different time periods. We measured the total starlight in each era – one billion years ago, two billion years ago, six billion years ago, etc. – the whole the way back to when the stars were first formed. This enabled us to reconstruct EBL and determine the star’s star story of the universe more effectively than previously achieved. “Vaidehi Paliya, co-author and postdoctor, who analyzed nearly nine years of relevant data, said in a statement.

Blazars emit jets of energetic particles that include gamma rays or ultra-energetic photons. And gamma rays emitted from blazer’s voyages through cosmic fog (EBL), which consists of visible and ultraviolet headlights. When gamma rays collide with visible light, they become electron pairs and positrons. “In fact, the process dampens the gamma ray signal in much the same way as fog dimming a distant guy,” NASA told a press release on the phenomenon. These collisions leave visible impressions that researchers can observe using Fermi.

“By measuring how many photos have been absorbed, we could measure how thick the dimm was and also measure, as a function of time, how much light there was throughout the wavelength, Ajello said in the statement.

By mapping the different densities of this cosmic fog, researchers could observe extremely long (and therefore extremely old) star lights as these collisions happen over long distances. This technology also worked because the technology is not indirectly observed by light radiation by indirectly observing the starlight through the interactions between gamma rays and visible light.

“The first billion years of our universe’s history is a very interesting epoch that has not yet been investigated by current satellites. Our measurement allows us to peek inside it. Maybe one day we’ll find a way to see all the way back to Big Bang. This is our ultimate goal, says Ajello in the statement.

The researchers published their work today in the journal Science .

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