Washington DC – In a recent study, biologists discovered how main injuries damage individual cells and genes that can lead…
Washington DC – In a recent study, biologists discovered how main injuries damage individual cells and genes that can lead to serious brain problems.
The researchers at the University of California studied more than 6000 cells in 15 hippocampal cell types – The first study of individual cell types exposed to brain trauma. Each cell has the same DNA, but the genes that are activated vary between different cell types. Among the 15 cell types are two previously unknown, each with a unique set of active genes.
Life researchers give the first cell the “atlas” of the hippocampus ̵
1; the part of the brain that helps regulate learning and memory – when affected by traumatic brain injury. The team also suggested gene candidates for the treatment of brain diseases associated with traumatic brain injuries, such as Alzheimer’s disease and post-traumatic stress disorder.
“Each cell type is different,” said Fernando Gomez-Pinilla, co-author of study, published in the journal Nature Communications.
The biologists found that hundreds of genes were negatively affected by mild traumatic brain injury, such as brain shaking. These altered genes can later lead to Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other diseases.
The researchers reproduced a brainwashing brain in mice and studied other mice that did not get brain damage. The researchers analyzed thousands of cells in the hippocampus of both groups of mice.
The mice without damage had very low levels in 14 of the 15 cell types of a gene called TTR that regulates metabolism, controls thyroid hormones and performs other functions. Brain trauma increased the Ttr level in essentially all cell types found by the researchers. They concluded that TTR is important for brain health and can work to get more thyroid hormone in the brain to maintain metabolism. A thyroid hormone called T4 was injected into mice. T4 improved traumatic brain injury-induced learning loss and reversed changes in 93 genes that affect learning and memory. This reversal of damage caused by traumatic brain injury is a major new discovery. After brain injury, metabolism is significantly reduced. The biologists believe that T4 can “rewind” metabolism.
Researchers found evidence that at least 12 of 15 cell types are adversely affected by brain trauma, somewhat stronger than others. They could see how genes linked to Alzheimer’s disease acted in different cell types, giving new details about where these genes act when they are affected by brain trauma. “We learn which cell types we may want to target in future research,” says Xia Yang, a senior author of the study. “Perhaps Alzheimer’s disease-related genes need not be active in all different cell types.”
For the first time, the biologists found several genes affected by traumatic brain injury, recently linked to neurotic behavior in humans. Traumatic brain injury has been associated with depression, anxiety and schizophrenia. This research can lead to new treatments for these conditions.