European Heart Journal . "> Microscopic image of thin sections of a thorax mouse aorta exposed to a fluorescent probe…
Microscopic image of thin sections of a thorax mouse aorta exposed to a fluorescent probe to stain telomeres. Cells of cells are colored blue and telomeres are shown with red dots within the nuclei. Fluorescence intensity correlates with telomer length. Red-curved lines are from elastin auto-fluorescence. Credit: PD Dr. Christian Werner, University Hospital in Saarland, Homburg, Germany and European Heart Journal .
Researchers have discovered evidence that endurance training, like running, swimming, cross country skiing and cycling, helps you grow older than exercise exercise, which means weight training with weights.
In a study published in the European Heart Journal today, researchers in Germany saw the effects of three types of training training, intensive interval training and resistance training-how cells in the human body age and they found that endurance and high intensity education both slow or even reverse cellular aging, but that resistance training does not.
Our DNA is organized in chromosomes in all cells in our bodies. At the end of each chromosome, a repetitive DNA sequence, called telomerer, encapsulates the chromosome and protects its ends from deterioration. As we grow older, telomeres decrease and this is an important molecular mechanism for cell aging, which in turn leads to cell death when the telomer can no longer protect the chromosomal DNA. The process of telomerer shortening is regulated by several proteins. Among them is the enzyme telomerase that can counteract the shortening process and can even add the length of telomeres.
The researchers were led by Professor Ulrich Laufs, Leipzig University, Germany, registered 266 young healthy but previously inactive volunteers and randomized them to six months of endurance training (continuous running), intensive high intensity training (heating followed by four stretches of high intensity shifting with slower driving), resistance training exercise on eight machines, including rear extension, snap, retraction, sitting rowing, sitting bones and elongation, sitting chest pressures and leg pressures) or to unchanged lifestyle (control group) .
The participants randomized to the three types of training were conducted three 45-minute sessions a week, and a total of 124 completed the study. The researchers analyzed the telomer length and telomerase activity in white blood cells in blood taken from volunteers at the beginning of the study and two to seven days after the last exercise session six months later.
Prof Laufs said: “Our main finding is that compared to the study start and control group, volunteers who performed endurance and high intensity training increased telomerase activity and telomer length, both of which are important for cellular aging, regenerative capacity and thus healthy aging. Interesting, resistance training did not exert these effects. “
Telomerase activity increased two to threefold and telomer length increased significantly in endurance and high intensity training groups compared to resistance and control groups.
Take the bodypiece that shows the effects of three types of exercise retention training, intensity training and resistance training – on the way cells in the human body age, and found that stamina and high intensity training both slowed or even reverse cellular aging, but resistance training did not. Credit: Ulrich Laufs, Christian Werner and European Heart Journal
“The study identifies a mechanism by which endurance training but not resistance training improves healthy aging. It can help shape future studies on this important subject by using telomer length as a indicator of “biological age” in future intervention studies, says Prof Laufs.
Co-author of the study Dr. Christian Werner of Saarland University in Germany said: “The study has several consequences: Our data support the current European Guideline of European Cardiological Society recommends that resistance training should supplement endurance training instead of substitutes. Data identifies telomerase activity and telomer length as sensitive ways to measure the cellular effects of different forms of exercise. These measurements to guide exercise recommendations for individuals can improve both exercise programs and effectiveness in preventing cardiovascular disease. “
Previous research has shown that longer telomeres and increased telomerase activity are associated with healthy aging. However, this is the first prospective, randomized, controlled study of the effects of different forms of exercise on these two cellular aging measurements.
Prof Laufs said: “Physical exercise is generally recommended. However, prospective randomized controlled training studies are very rare because they require a lot of effort and there are no sources of funding from the industry. The number of participants in our study may seem small compared to major drug attempts, but according to our best knowledge, this is the largest randomized study that compares well-defined training models with a control group and with a long duration of six months. We hope that our project will stimulate confirmation and further studies in this area. “
A possible mechanism that explains why endurance and high intensity training can increase telomer length and telomerase activity is that these types of exercise affect the levels of nitrogen oxide in the blood vessels, contributing to the changes in the cells.
” From an evolutionary perspective perseverance and high intensity training can imitate our forefathers’ favorable travels and struggles or behaviors better than weight training, “says Dr. Werner.
Restrictions on the study include the fact that the number of participants is small, although it represents the largest study to investigate this in a prospective and randomized controlled manner, and the participants’ everyday activities outside of training sessions may have included elements in other forms of exercise, but it would probably be in all groups, including the control group.
In an accompanying editorial of Professor Konstantinos Stellos and Professor Ioakim Spyridopoulos, of Newcastle University and Freeman Hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Britain, who was not involved in research, writes that so far, the role of telomerase in maintaining telomer length is not involved in cardiovascular disease, except perhaps for heart failure. It seems rather that acceleration in telomer reduction may be a sign of increased oxidative stress and a higher turnover of cells, which coincides with decreased telomerase activity. Telomeras, however, lead to improved nitric oxide, reduced oxidative stress, reduced damage to the cells DNA and reduced cell death, all of which are important to delay the occurrence of arteries with fat content. They conclude that the results of the study of Dr. Werner and Prof Laufs “clearly emphasize the advantage of aerobic endurance training compared to resistance training in cardiovascular education.
Resistance training and exercise motivation go hand in hand
“Differential effects of endurance, interval and resistance training on telomerase activity and telomer length in a randomized controlled study” by Christian Werner et al. European Heart Journal . DOI: 10.1093 / eurheartj / ehy585
“Exercise, Telomerase Activity and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases”, by Konstantinos Stellos and Ioakim Spyridopoulos. European Heart Journal . DOI: 10.1093 / eurheartj / ehy707