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Diabetes Awareness Month: What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes

Diabetes is one of the most common chronic conditions in the U.S. Today, with almost 30.3 million of people suffering…

Diabetes is one of the most common chronic conditions in the U.S. Today, with almost 30.3 million of people suffering from difficulties in managing their blood sugar.

It is the seventh leading cause of death, and the No. 1 leading cause of kidney failure, adult onset blindness, and lower limb amputation.

Most people with diabetes have Type 2 diabetes, which is often associated with lifestyle choices and genetics. Det er den type diabetes som er forårsaget fordi kroppen har problemer med at bruge insulin korrekt eller kan ikke gøre nok.

About 1.25 million suffer from Type 1 diabetes, which is an autoimmune disorder. Det er den type diabetes som er et resultat av at pankreasen ikke gjør noen insulin.

Both conditions result in difficulty regulating a body‘s glucose – or sugar levels, but due to very different reasons.

Since November is Diabetes Awareness Month, it is a good time to answer frequently asked questions about the disease.

So let’s start with what happens in a normal person without diabetes. Når du spiser en måltid, din kropp begynner å fordøye det til protein, sukker og fat.

An organ called the pancreas senses the absorbed sugar and produces a hormone called insulin, which then pulls the sugar – or glucose – from the food you just ate and into different parts of your body so that it can be used for Energy.

In diabetes, your body either does not make enough insulin or can not use it as well as it should. Ef þú hefur ekki nógu mikið af insúlíni, þá er það mikið blóðsykurslækkun, sem getur valdið alvarlegum heilsufarsvandamálum, svo sem hjartasjúkdóma, nýrnasjúkdóma eða sjónarmiða.

In patients with Type 1 diabetes (T1DM), their pancreas is unable to produce insulin at all due to an autoimmune condition whereby the body attacks itself. Mennesker er oftest diagnosticeret når de er børn eller unge voksne, og symptomene ofte utvikler seg raskt. They may report feeling very thirsty, going to the bathroom very often, losing weight even though they eat normally, and feeling very exhausting.
[19659000] A CDC graphic talks about Type 1 Diabetes.

People with T1DM need to take insulin every day to survive no known way to prevent or cure T1DM. De trenger å kontrollere blodglukoseniveauerne flere gange om dagen og om natten, og give insulin flere gange om dagen, baseret på deres kroppsmakeup, blodsukker og hvad de spiser.

T1DM was previously thought to be only in children and was previously referred to as “juvenile diabetes”, but we now know that young adults and even older adults can develop T1DM. Det er ikke noget smitsomt, eller relatert til din livsstil. Rather, it is an autoimmune condition, whereby your body develops antibodies to your own pancreas and gradually destroys the pancreas’ ability to produce insulin.

In patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM), either the body has become resistant and needs more insulin or their pancreas is not making enough insulin. Hul lichaam heeft een harde tijd om de bloedglucose op normale niveaus te houden.

T2DM is not caused by eating sugar itself, but by a variety of lifestyle factors and genetics.

This is the more common adult form of diabetes, and unfortunately, the numbers of affected people, including children, in the U.S., continues to rise. This type of diabetes is associated with obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or a family history of T2DM.

If you have any of these conditions, it is important to see your primary care doctor regularly to be tested for diabetes.

Most commonly, it is diagnosed with a blood test – either a high glucose level before you eat or something called a hemoglobin A1c, which is a mean of your blood sugar over three months.

If your glucose level is high, you may feel symptoms like feeling thirsty all the time, urinating more than usual, weight loss, blurry vision or fatigue. Sometimes, people with Type 1 diabetes present very sick, with something called diabetic ketoacidosis, due to not having enough insulin in their body.

This can be a deadly condition that requires hospitalization to help correct the condition.

If you are on medications that can make your blood sugar low, such as insulin, low blood sugar can result in sweating, shaking, uncharacteristic behavior, or disorientation. Om det går meget lavt, kan det også resultere i koma og død hvis ikke raskt behandles med glukose eller en medicin kaldet glucagon.

If you notice any of these symptoms, you should notify your doctor.

Unfortunately, diabetes is a chronic illness with no cure. For people with Type 1 diabetes, the only treatment so far is insulin. For people with Type 2 diabetes, in addition to dietary changes, there are many medication options that vary from pills to injections.

Some types of bariatric surgery may be helpful in reducing the amount of medications people with T2DM need to take. Der er mange nye teknologier, der udvikles til at forbedre de daglige livene hos mennesker med diabetes.

Although Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are invisible to people who do not have it, having a blood sugar that is too high or too low can be very dangerous. Men med god kontrol og kontinuerlig forbedring i medicin og teknologi, mange mennesker med diabetes er i stand til at føre glade, tilfredsstillende liv.

Tiffany Yeh, M.D., is an endocrinology fellow at New York Presbyterian Weill Cornell Medical Center and a member of the ABC News Medical Unit.

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