Yttria-stabilized zirconium oxide (YSZ) ceramics are used in a number of industries – from intricate components and functions used in…
Yttria-stabilized zirconium oxide (YSZ) ceramics are used in a number of industries – from intricate components and functions used in jewelry and watchmaking to extremely hard, durable structural ceramics used in extreme environments.
Mechanical and Optical Features are both important in watchmaking and jewelry to ensure a functional and desirable product is made.
Stabilized zirconia has unique mechanical, physicochemical and electrical properties that make it an exceptional ceramic material of great interest to a wide range of industries and applications.
Pure zirconia is present as a natural mineral called bath particle and can be observed in one of three states depending on the temperature 1
Figure 1. Zirconium Phase Solid Transformations. As the temperature increases, zirconium oxide is converted from monoclinical (a) to tetragonal (b) to cubic (c) 2 .
Through a doping process, the highly sought after tetragonal state of zirconia can be preserved. This requires that oxides be added to the crystalline structure of zirconium oxide. Various oxides can be used to stabilize the higher temperature phases including ceria (CeO 2 ), calcia (CaO) and Magnesia (MgO), but yttria (Y 2 ] 3 ) is usually used because it has high solubility in the zirconium oxide grid 3 .
Some of the Zr 4+ ions are substituted in the crystal grid for the slightly larger Y 3 + ions to form yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ)