Indus or Harappan Civilization flourished in the northwest parts of South Asia more than 4000 years ago. The ancient community…
Indus or Harappan Civilization flourished in the northwest parts of South Asia more than 4000 years ago. The ancient community that developed mainly in the Indus River Valley was marked by the construction of sophisticated cities and advanced culture.
In the 19th century Indus Civilization left major cities. They settled in smaller villages in the Himalayan foothills and eventually disappeared. A new study shows that the old Indus civilization was broken down in response to climate change. A shift in temperatures and weather patterns across the Indus Valley caused the summer months rain to gradually dry up. The rain cuts made the farm hard or impossible near the Harapp cities and forced people to resettle far from the flowing river.
“Although weak Mormons made farming difficult along Indus, up at the foot, moisture and rain would come more regularly, says Liviu Giosan, a geologist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI).” When the winter’s storms hit the Himalayan Mediterranean, they rained on the Pakistani side and fed small currents there. Compared to the floods of monsoons that Harappans used to see in Indus, there had been relatively little water, but at least it had been reliable. “
It is difficult to find direct evidence of this shift. But scientists were able to cluster climate records by sampling sea floor off the coast of Pakistan. They examined the shell of single plankton called foraminifera found in the sediments and revealed deeper clues about the climate of the region.
“The seabed near the Indus mouth is a very low oxygen environment, so it grows and dies everyone in the water is very well preserved in the sediment,” says Giosan. “You can basically get DNA fragments of almost everything that lives there.”
Analysis showed that strong winds lead nutrients from the deeper sea to the surface and feed a number of plant and wildlife during the winter seasons. Weaker winds, on the other hand, provide fewer nutrients for the rest of the year, which results in a little less productivity in the offshore water.
“The value of this approach is that it gives you a picture of the earlier biodiversity that you would lack by relying on skeleton residues or fossil records. And because we can sequentially bill billions of DNA molecules, it gives a lot of high resolution image of how the ecosystem changed over time. “William Orsi, paleontologist and geobiologist at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, said.
Researchers believe that Collapse of Indus Civilization took place gradually. The rain in the foot seems to have been sufficient to keep settlements there for the next millennium, but they also eventually wipe up and contribute to their final death.