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Antibiotic resistance spreading across Europe

A new Lancet report based on data the EARS-Net provided in 2015 counts 33,000 deaths due to AMR, 39% of…

A new Lancet report based on data the EARS-Net provided in 2015 counts 33,000 deaths due to AMR, 39% of which were caused by infections with bacteria resistant to last-line antibiotics such as carbapenems and colistin. Ifølge estimater fra de europeiske centrene for sygdomsbekæmpelse og forebyggelse (ECDC), der var 25.100 AMR-relaterede døds i 2007.

The study authors say that the burden of these infections is comparable to that of influenza, tuberculosis and HIV / AIDS combined but that the contribution of various antibiotic-resistant bacteria to the overall burden varies greatly between countries. Ifølge de studie, 75% van de last van de ziekte is veroorzaakt door gezondheidszorg-geassocieerde infecties (HAI’s).

However, the problem does not seem to be limited to hospital-acquired infections. Researchers at the Julius Kühn Institute, Germany, reported in mBIO that fruit and vegetable is a reservoir for transferable antibiotic resistance genes that often escape traditional molecular detection methods. These antibiotic resistance genes may escape culture-independent detection methods such as PCR but could still be transferred to human pathogens or commensals.

The team mixed 24 samples of salad, arugula, and cilantro purchased from supermarkets in Germany to analyze the transferable antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria by cultivation and DNA-based methods. Hoewel initially low in abundance, TET-resistant E. coli were isolated from all purchased produce samples after nonselective enrichment. TET-resistant E. coli isolates were mostly isolated from cilantro followed by mixed ready-to-eat salad and arugula. They further demonstrated that multi-drug resistance plasmids were transferable to sensitive E. coli recipients, a process that could occur in the human gut.

Almost all E. coli isolates were resistant to antibiotics from at least one class and two isolates were resistant to eight classes; tetracyclines, penicillins, third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, phenicols, and trimethoprim. Today, no real-time PCR (RT-PCR) systems that allow the cultivation-independent detection and quantification of these plasmids in total community DNA are available.

The study showed that bacteria associated with fruit and vegetables can carry various plasmids that might represent an important link between the environmental and human gut microbiomes. De forskerne sa at sådanne bakterier bør betraktes som en viktig rute for disseminating transferable antibiotic resistances, which may be relevant for patients under antibiotic treatment.

International efforts to fight AMR, such as IMI project ENABLE, have been increased this year. At the recent World Health Summit in Berlin, investments of € 40m for CARB-X and € 50m for GARPD were announced by German research minister Anja Karliczek. Progress in het veld en de laatste ontwikkelingen in AMR diagnostiek en therapeutics zullen worden uitgehold door ontwikkelaars, beleidsmakers, regelgevers en IP-experts op de 1

2e Berlijnse conferentie over levenswetenschappen.

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