The solution to one of the deepest and most unpleasant mysteries of modern physics can be found in one of…
The solution to one of the deepest and most unpleasant mysteries of modern physics can be found in one of Albert Einstein’s forgotten theories that the famous physicist abandoned almost a century ago.
Dark energy and dark matter are invisible theoretical subjects that are believed to represent 95 percent of the universe, but their existence is just theorized based on the effects they seem to have on the normal matter that we are all familiar with. Some of the most sophisticated and sensitive instruments ever made by humans have failed to detect any signs of things after nearly 50 years of search.
As described in a document published this week in Astronomy and Astrophysics a theory developed by Albert Einstein in 1
918 and then abandoned has had the key to the darkness of material and dark energy mysteries all the time. Oxford astrophysicist James Farnes elaborated this theory to arrive at a new theory that combines dark matter and dark energy as a single “dark fluid” that penetrates the universe.
This dark liquid, if it exists, has negative mass. Unlike normal matter, which has a positive gravity charge or mass (which means it attracts another thing), negative mass would reject the matter. In short, if you press an object that had a negative mass from you, the object would actually move towards you instead of moving towards the applied force, as is the case with common matter. According to Farnes, negative masses would spread through the universe as a single substance in the form of dark liquid.
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“The result seems pretty beautiful,” said Farnes in an article about his theory at The Conversation. “Dark energy and dark matter can be combined into a single substance, where both effects can easily be explained as positive mass matter of surfing on an ocean of negative masses.”
Farnes new theory is both elegant and intuitive. As far as Farnes points out in his paper, polarization – simple, things that exist in positive and negative forms – is a common feature of the universe. There are positive and negative electrical charges, and even information appears to be polarized as one and zero. It would be odd, argues Farnes about such a fundamental characteristic that mass has monopolized positive charges.
The theory of farness has its roots in a small note that Einstein made to himself in 1918, while struggling to explain the cosmological constant – which Einstein first used to describe the dynamics of the universe – in his equations for general relativity.
Einstein invoked the cosmological constant to explain how the universe can be static, which was widely accepted at the time, while describing the effects of gravity. Without this cosmological constant, Einstein realizes that the gravity of the universe would make it collapse on itself. Basically, the cosmological constant was a term that served as a kind of anti-gravity. The problem for Einstein was to explain what this cosmological constant consisted of.
In the 1918 note, Einstein described a modification of his theory of general relativity where “” empty space “takes the role of pregnant negative masses that are distributed throughout the interstellar space,” the key phrase here is “negative mass.”
However, in the following year, Einstein had assumed another interpretation of the cosmological constant and this little note was lost for history. In 1931, Einstein removed the cosmological constable from his theory of general relativity just after Edward Hubble discovered that the universe was not static but expanded.
This crushing observation evidence led Einstein to describe his call of the cosmological constant as his “greatest blindness”. Today, however, Einstin’s cosmological constant is hardly regarded as a hump by most physicists.
In fact, the cosmological constant is integrated into the lambda-CDM model, the universe’s most accepted cosmological model. In this model of the universe, the cosmological constituent represents dark energy, which is called upon to explain the universe’s growing expansion.
The Lambda CDM model also contains dark matter as a way of explaining observed galactic rotation. The gravity influence on the stars on the outskirts of a galaxy is less than the influence of gravity on the stars in the middle of the galaxy, which indicates that the stars on the edge of the galaxy will rotate faster than the inner stars. In fact, the galaxies will fly together because of their own rotational strength. Dark matter is theorized as the things that keep the galaxies intact and account for the observed rotational speed of the stars.
But over the past half century, dozens of experiments have revealed that dark matter has gone empty.
In the case of dark matter, a large part of the problem is that physicists are not exactly sure what they are looking for as there are a number of leading candidates for dark matter particles. In the case of dark energy, which is believed to be a characteristic of space itself, there are also a number of theories that extend from virtual particles that pop in and out of existence into a type of field called “quintessens”. In both cases, physicists have no idea how to detect dark energy and can only positize their existence based on the universe’s expansion.
There is, of course, the possibility that Einstein got gravity completely wrong and we must completely abandon the concept of dark matter and dark energy. While some physicists have created alternative theories of gravity that eliminate the need for dark matter, they are generally regarded as fringes in the scientific community. This is mainly due to the fact that Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which has proven to be correct, is correct in every test thrown on it over the last century.
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The new theory of the fathers is a radical departure, but if it is correct, it would fundamentally change our understanding of the universe.
So far, the first rudimentary models, Farnes created, based on his theory, have been able to account for a handful of observed properties of galactic rotation and the universe expansion that usually refers to dark matter and dark energy. This is a promising start, but Farnes said that more observation data from instruments such as Square Kilometer Array will be needed to drive their theory in the mainstream.
“About [my model is] genuine, it would suggest that they missed 95 percent of the cosmos had an aesthetic solution: we had forgotten to include a simple minus sign,” Farnes concluded in the conversation.